ENGR 101: Introduction to Engineering (2 units)
History and philosophy of Science: Man – his origin and nature; man and his cosmic environment; scientific methodology; science and technology in the society and service of man. Renewable and non-renewable resources -Man and his energy resources. Environmental effects of chemicals, plastics, textiles, wastes and other materials. Chemical and radio-chemical hazards. Introduction to the various areas of science and technology/engineering. Engineering -in-society: History of Engineering and technology; safety in Engineering and Introduction to Risk Analysis. The role of engineers in nation building. Invited lectures from professionals.
ENGR 102: Applied Mechanics (2 Units)
Force systems, resultants, moments, couples. Equilibrium; free body diagrams, 2 dimensional force systems, equations of equilibrium, equilibrium of forces in space, internal forces, examples on simple mechanics, levers, pulleys, screens and threads, trusses, frames. Friction, Centroid graphical determination. Center of gravity. Moment of inertia, radius of gyration, polar moment of inertia, parallel axes theorem, moment of inertia of plane areas, built up sections, shear-moment diagram and Bending moment’s etc. Kinematics of particles and rigid bodies (revision). Newton’s laws of motion, torque, power, work, energy, law of conservation and restitution. simple harmonic motions.
ABE 201: Introduction to Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering (1 Unit)
The human need for food, fiber and timber and the role of engineering in their production, processing, storage/preservation and transportation. Concept of Agriculture as crops and livestock production and of Bioresources as including Aquaculture and Forestry, among others. Definition of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering and its unique position in the engineering professions. The specialty areas of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering; their general introduction.
ABE 252: Computer Application to Engineering (3 Units)
Concept of structured programming. Procedures and functions in FORTRAN. Declarations, I/O and file operations. Using a Windows-based FORTRAN Software (FORTRAN95 or later) in finding solutions to equations, interpolations and extrapolations, calculus, numerical derivatives and integrals, matrix operations, differential equations, and least squire approximations.
ABE 254: The Internet and Information Technology (2 Units)
Introduction to the PC and Internet including a brief history. Implications of the Computer revolution. Switching on and booting the PC. Care and use of floppy discs. The peripherals. Basic spreadsheet and Word processing operations. Basic computer-aided drawing. Accessing the Internet and navigating the web. E-mailing operations. Use of the Internet for information searching and research. Downloading documents on the Internet.
ENGR 201: Materials Science (2 units).
Atomic and molecular structure, crystals. Metallic states. Defects in crystals, conductors, semi -conductors and insulators. Alloy Theory – Application to industrial alloys – steel in particular. Engineering properties – There control. Hot and cold working heat treatment, etc. Principles of mechanical testing impact test, tensile test, hardness tests, Fracture. Erosions and corrosion control. Equilibrium and rate reactions. Non-metallic materials – Glass, rubber, concrete, plastics, wood, ceramics. Elastic and plastic deformations: Defects in metals. Failure of engineering materials. Electrical properties. Magnetic materials, properties and characteristics, domain theory, magnetostiction, ancosotropy, losses, permanent magnet, transformer cores, Dielectrics Materials: liquid, solid and organic dielectrics, polymers, properties or characteristics inorganic materials, piezoelectric and ferry electric materials, composite structures, conductors, super conductors, semi-conductors, and insulators.
ENGR 202: Materials Science Laboratory (1 Unit)
Mechanical test, impact test, tensile test, hardness test, fatigue test, creep test and non- destructive test of engineering materials. Testing of magnetic materials, transformer cores. ie. Testing of insulators, cables and transformer oils. Verification of PN-junction characteristics.
ABE 301: Introduction to Technical Writing and Presentation (1 Unit)
Principles of effective communication, professional use of the English language. Principles of technical writing. Oral presentation of technical ideas.
ABE 302: Basic Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering (1 Unit)
Basics of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering. Application of practical-problems solving skills. Identification of various tractors, implements, forestry machinery and aquacultural equipment. Tractor driving and test. Introduction to field operations in agricultural and bioresources engineering.
ABE 304: Introduction to Farm Machinery (2 Units)
(A service course offered to Faculty of Agriculture)
Introductory treatment of topics in farm power and machinery, electric power and processing, soil and water engineering to provide an understanding of the role of agricultural engineering in the mechanization of the agricultural industry and familiarize the agricultural student with basic agricultural engineering principles and technology.
ABE 312: Mechanics of Soil -Machine Interaction (2 Unit)
Shearing resistance of soils. Active and passive resistance of cohesive and cohesionless soils. Stability of slopes and foundation. Consolidation and settlement. Application of classical soil, mechanics. Drainage of agricultural soils, Traction and trafficability curves. Soil compaction: causes, effects on soil structure. Control measures, Soil – Machine dynamics, Models for 2D and 3D analysis of soil- machine interaction.
ABE 314: Engineering Drawing and Design (1 Unit)
Parts and components assembly. Detailed drawing of machine, building and/or engineering system components. Sketching and use of design features, symbols, screws, fasteners, couplings, clutches, gears, etc. Building/Machine/Engineering-system component design. Presentation of design portfolio.
ABE 321: Applied Hydraulics in ABE (2 Units)
Review of fluid statics, kinematics and dynamics. Flow in closed conduits: continuity, momentum and energy equations and their applications for single pipelines. Head losses in transitions and fittings, and in non-circular pipes. Empirical friction-loss formulae. Pumps. Flow in open channels: continuity, momentum and energy equations and their applications. The Darcy-Weisbach and Manning equations. Energy grade line. Specific energy. Water-surface profiles. The hydraulic jump.
ABE 322: Water Quality, Epidemiology and Environmental Chemistry (2 Units)
Overview of freshwater geochemistry. Primary production and nutrient cycles in rivers and lakes. Water pollutants and their sources. The health, environmental and socio-economic impacts of Water pollution. Epidemiological concept and definition. Water-borne diseases. Food-borne diseases. Air-borne diseases. Air pollution sources and effects. Origin and fate of air pollutants. Air pollution meteorology and atmospheric dispersion.
ABE 323: Applied Soil Mechanics in ABE (2 Units)
Soil physical properties, crop growth, crop yield, crop physical properties and land management; soil mechanics laboratory practicals and measurement of physical, permeability, compaction and shear strength properties of agricultural soils. Phase relationships, shear strength, consolidation, settlement and compaction. Site investigations.
ABE 324: Climatology and Meteorology in Agric. and Bioresources Engineering (1 Unit)
The tropics. Atmospheric circulation in the tropics. Sunshine, Radiation, Temperature and humidity. Clouds, condensation and rainfall. Climate and climate change. Crop yield and Weather. Weather forecasting. Seasonality of tropical hydro-meteorological phenomena. Meteorology and agricultural/ bioresources production in the tropics.
ABE 326: Environmental Hydrology (2 Units)
Definition of hydrology and applications to environmental problems. Watershed concepts. The hydrological cycle and its component processes. The hydrologic budget and water balance equation. Precipitation, Vegetative-canopy Interception, Evaporation, Evapotranspiration, Infiltration, Unsaturated Flow, Rainfall Excess, Abstractions and Direct Runoff. Overland flow; Surface runoff; and Flow Routing. Runoff Hydrographs. Groundwater Flow. Measurement of Hydrologic variables and their common Units of Measurement. Hydrologic Data Sources. Rainfall intensity-duration-frequency analysis. Design storms. Design rainfall hyetographs. Emprical methods of estimating design runoff volume, peak flow, and design hydrograph – the Curve Number method, rational method, and Dimensionless Hydrograph method. Design flow simulation.
ABE 331: Engineering Properties of Biomaterials (1 Unit)
Physical characteristics; criteria for describing shape and size; determination of volume, density, porosity, surface area. Mechanical properties; biological systems; time dependent and characterization of biomaterials. Thermal properties. Aerodynamic properties.
ABE 341: Structures and their Environment (1 Unit)
Animal environmental requirements. Animal heat and moisture production. Types and characteristics of construction materials – concrete, masonry and wood. Planning buildings for livestock production and biomaterials storage to provide optimum environmental control. For each type of building, the building materials, functional layouts and electrical requirements are presented. Planning of farmsteads. Environmental physiology of livestock. The greenhouse and its environmental control. Environmental control of livestock housing by natural and forced ventilation.
ENGR 301: Engineering Analysis (4 Units)
Complex derivatives and analytic functions. Bi-linear transformations, conformal mapping. Contour integration, cauchy’s integral theory, residue theorem. Applications. Biemann surfaces. Bessel’s Equation and Fourier series. Longondre functions. Simultaneous differential equations with constant coefficients; Laplace transform methods. Linear second order differential equations with constant and variable coefficients. Special functions. Classifications of second order partial differential equations. Laplace, wave and diffusion equations. Initial and boundary value problems. Separation of variables. Similarity solutions. Solution of equations by interaction. Newton-Raphson Method; errors. Numerical differentiation and integration, Simpson’s Rule. Introduction to interpolation and curve fittings. Statistical Analysis; Regression, and correlation – large sampling theory. Test of hypothesis and quality control.
ABE 411: Agric. and Biores.Engineering Field Operations (1 Unit)
Practical exposure to the adjustment, operation and maintenance of tractors, farm machinery, forestry machinery, and aquacultural equipment and gadgets as application in Nigeria. Introduction to field and laboratory measurement devices and equipment
ABE 412: Agricultural Engineering Practicals (2 Units)
(A service Laboratory & Field course Offered to Faculty of Agriculture)
Practical exposure to the adjustment, operation and maintenance of tractors, farm machinery and other equipment and gadgets as applicable in Nigerian agriculture.
ABE 413: Land Clearing and Development (2 Units)
Land resources and Land use Act in relation to Nigerian agriculture and forestry. Vegetation types. Objectives, methods and equipment for land clearing and development. Machinery selection, mechanics of operation. Land reclamation. Earth moving machinery and earth moving mechanics. Economic analysis of land clearing operations.
ABE 415: Agricultural and Bioresources Power and Machinery (2 Units)
Power sources for agriculture and forestry. Selection and management of farm tractors and equipment. Force analysis and power measurement on tillage tools. Field performance evaluation of food- and forest crop production equipment. Adjustment, maintenance and repair of tractors and equipment.
ABE 421: Hydraulic Structures (2 Units)
Introduction to dams and artificial wetlands. Reservoir hydraulics, spillways and high pressure outlets. Discharge measurement structures. Weirs – sharp-crested, broad-crested. The Parshall Flume. Gates. Culverts. Water level and velocity control structures. Flow-dividing structures. Flow intake structures. Riprap protection and silt control devices.
ABE 423: Principles of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering (2 Units)
Crop water requirements in agriculture and forestry. Methods of irrigation. Principles of furrow, basin and sprinkler irrigation. Frequency and amount of irrigation. Irrigation water scheduling. Evaluating irrigation systems and practices. Principles and methods land drainage. Effect of crops, surface drainage, and sub-surface drainage.ABE
431: Principles of Plant & Animal Products Handling, Processing & Storage (2 Units)
Properties and characteristics of plant/animal products and biomaterials, Heat transfer and heat exchangers Cleaning, sorting and grading. Handling methods and machines. Processing techniques. Crop storage. Crop drying. Psychrometry and psychometric charts.
ABE 441: Environmental Impact Assessment in Agricultural & Bioresources Engineering (2 Units)
Definition and concept of EIA. Socio-economic impacts definition. Scoping and baseline studies. Physical parameters for the soils, hydrological, water quality, and ecological components of an EIA. Impacts from direct manipulation or utilization. Impacts from projects not directly associated with manipulation and utilization. Hydrological impacts of construction projects – roads, land clearing/development/dams, etc. Impacts prediction, mitigation and monitoring. Mitigation measures relating to urban runoff and flood protection. International conventions on nature conservation. Evaluation of ecosystems. Restoration and compensation.
ABE 451: Decision Support and Data Acquisition Systems (2 Units)
Systems Concepts. Geographic information systems (GIS) applications. Global positioning systems (GPS) applications. Simulation modeling applications. Expert systems applications. Introductory Bioinformatics. Introduction to Geoinformatics. Introduction to Hydroinformatics. Data logging and Telemetry. Remote sensing applications. Digital elevation mapping (DEM) applications. Monitoring instrumentation and microcomputer controls.
ABE 462: Special Problems in Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering (3 Units)
Each student will select and undertake a detailed study of any problem in agricultural and bioresources engineering of relevance to Nigeria under the guidance of an academic staff. A term paper will be submitted at the end of the study, which may be part of the literature review and research proposal for the student’s final-year project.
ABE 464: Seminar (2 Units)
The objective of this course is to broaden the knowledge base of the student and to train him/her to undertake independent studies. Every student is expected to select a topic of national and professional relevance and of particular interest to the student but different from the Special Problems. The student should thoroughly research this topic and write a technically sound seminar paper on it while away on the SIWES programme.
ENGR 401: Computational Methods (3 Units)
Polynomials and their Zeros – Methods of bisection, Newton, Bairstow, Synthetic division and Lehmer; Direct methods for the solution of linear equation, Iterative process, its application to the solution of simultaneous linear equations; convergence; Interpolation and differentiation met hod in numerical integration – Newton Coates formulae and finite difference methods. The Eigenvalue problem solution of ordinary differential equations. Methods of Taylor, Euler, predictor – corrector and Runge-Kutta. optimization methods, linear algebra and industrial statistics (Special Topics in Engineering Analysis).
ENGR 402: SIWES (10 Units)
Practical work is an essential part of the programme. All students are required to go for industrial training for 3 months during the long vacation at the end of their third year, and in their fourth year for a continuous 6-month period, under the Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES). Satisfactory performance during the training is required for graduation.
ABE 511: Agricultural and Bioresources Mechanization (2 units)
Nature and objectives of agricultural and forest mechanization. Factors affecting mechanization in the tropics. Analysis of production systems. Agricultural/forest mechanization as a strategy for rural development. Impact on food, fibre and timber production and on infrastructural development. Linkages with rural industrialization. Mechanization of fishing and aquacultural operations. Selected case studies.
ABE 512: Principles of Agro-Industrial Management (2 Units)
Principles of management. Feasibility and establishment of Agro-industries. Management of cottage industries for agricultural products. Selected management case studies in plant and equipment. Industrial group and organisational behaviour, motivation, industrial law, legislation on wages, trade marks and patents. Law of contract and sale of goods. Industrial safety and liability for injuries. Industrial relations. Trade unions, employer associations and role of state.
ABE 513: Power Sources for Agriculture and Forestry (2 Units)
Human-powered tools and machines. Draft animal power. Engines. Tractors for Agriculture and forestry. Two-wheel tractors. Two-axle tractors.
ABE 514: Agricultural & Bioresources Power and Machinery Systems Management (2 Units)
Integrated approach to machinery usage and agricultural/bioresources production sequence. Equipment selection. Scheduling of operation, seasonally factor. Machinery management Model. Machinery ownership and financing. Gross margin-analysis. Optimization of machinery -input combinations. Management of farm/forestry enterprises. Cost analysis of agricultural/forest machinery, Maintenance and Replacement. Case studies.
ABE 515: Agricultural and Forest Machinery (2 Units)
Tillage Machinery. Seeders and planters. Fertilizer distributors. Pest control equipment. Harvesters and Threshers. Specialized machines and equipment for forage crops, root crops, fruits and vegetables, tropical crops and orchards. Greenhouse and forest cultivation equipment. Forest machines – portable chain saws, portable brush saws, winches, hitches, mobile and self-propelled machinery, portable brush-cutters and grass trimmers.
ABE 516: Design of Agricultural and Forest Machinery (2 Units)
Machine design processes and procedures. Materials of construction, strength properties, stress analysis, costing. Design of machine elements. Machine fabrication. Typical design of low cost agricultural/forest machinery development and commercial manufacture in Nigeria.
ABE 517: Forest Engineering I (2 Units)
Forest stand establishment. Site preparation. Planting. Forest stand maintenance. Clearing and thinning of young stands. Pruning. Fertilization. Fire protection. Soil restoration. Forest roads.
ABE 518: Forest Engineering II (3 Units)
Tree harvesting, processing techniques, handlings and maneuvers. Tree felling, felling process, felling tools. Mechanical tree fellers. Delimbing, topping, bucking. Debarking. Wood comminution. Timber transportation; log extraction, skidding, winch skidding, grapple skidding, forwarding, locomotion. Special logging systems.
ABE 519: Safety, Ergonomics & Health Issues in Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering (1 Unit)
Care and protection against pesticide spills and poisoning. Safety issues in machinery operation. Work science and the human physiology. Physical training and professional skills requirements for safe and healthy operation of motorized machinery. Gender issues and considerations in design and operation of machinery.
ABE 521: Soil and Water Conservation (3 Units)
Types of erosion. Soil erosion by water. Universal soil loss equation. RUSLE. Control of soil erosion by water. Wind erosion and its control. Desertification and control measures. Earth dams and farm ponds.
ABE 522: Design of Soil and Water Conservation Structures (3 Units)
Review of relevant hydraulic theories. Design of vegetated waterways. Terracing: functions and classification. Terrace system planning and design. Conservation structures permanent and temporary structures, functional requirements and design features. Function, limitations and design features of drop spillways, chutes, formless flume, pipe spillways and culverts. Irrigation and drainage structures. Earth embankments and farm ponds. Floods: types and methods of control. Flood routing.
ABE 523: Design of Irrigation Systems (3 Units)
Distribution of water on the farm –surface ditches, underground pipes, portable pipes. Review of irrigation water application methods. Design of surface irrigation systems – graded border design, furrow irrigation design, evaluation of existing systems. Sprinkler irrigation systems and components. Sprinkler system design and layout for intermittent-move systems and for center-pivot sysems. Special sprinkler applications. Microirrigation systems layout and components. Emitters; discharge capacity and water distribution. Microirrigation system design.
ABE 524: Rural Water Supply and Sanitation (2 Units)
Water requirements. Water quality standards. Water-borne diseases. Biochemical oxygen demand. Portable water impurities. Sources and treatment methods of water for rural homes. Water lifting devices. Transportation and distribution systems. Pipe sizes. Waste disposal in rural communities. Collection, septic tanks. Digestion ponds and family privies.
ABE 525: Design of Drainage Systems (2 Units)
The need and design considerations for land drainage. Surface drainage and land forming. Subsurface drainage design. Drainage accessories – pipes and envelope materials. Loads on conduits. Drainage pumping. Construction and installation of drains. Maintenance of drains. Drainage applications in land reclamation and improvement.
ABE 526: Aquacultural Engineering II (3 Units)
Raceways design densities and loadings. Raceway length. Fish growth. Design principles and considerations for raceways. Site selection for net pens. Net pen design and construction. Biomass loading of tanks. Labour requirements. Tank shapes and sizes. Water inlet and outlet. Equipment and controls in aquacultural systems: feeding equipment; hand feeding, automatic feeders, demand feeders. Harvest equipment types. Monitoring equipment, sensors, monitoring and control systems. Aquacultural wastes handling: effluent regulations; materials to remove. Methods to remove ammonia. Methods to remove solids. Methods to dispose of solids. Methods to remove dissolved and colloidal organic matter. Methods to remove carbon dioxide.
ABE 527: Aquacultural Engineering I (2 Units)
Aquacultural systems and their environmental requirements. System types. Ponds, raceways, net pens and cages, tanks and re-circulating systems. Primary constraints in aquacultural systems: properties of water, oxygen as a constraint. Environmental needs of aquatic organisms. Materials for aquacultural facilities: considerations in materials selection; weight of water, corrosion, bio-fouling, ozone as a constraint. Materials for system components; tanks, raceways, waterproof lining, screen mesh, nets, ozone unit. Advantages and disadvantages of masonry, metals, plastics, rubber compounds, and wood materials. Design of aquacultural facilities: pond types, pond photosynthesis, diurnial limits. Productive systems and polyculture, pH limits, Nitrogen control.
ABE 528: Watershed Management (2 Units)
Watershed rainfall-runoff processes. Derivation of the St. Venant equations and solution of their kinematic approximation. Watershed hydrologic models, types and characterization. Watershed erosion and sediment yield models. Model application to planning and management of watershed changes and development. Watershed management for water harvesting, flood control, soil erosion and sediment yield control. Reservoir design, sedimentation and useful life.
ABE 531: Processing of Agricultural and Bioresources Products (2 Units)
Unit operations in processing. Cleaning, sorting, grading and separation: Principles, techniques and machines commination. Particle size analysis. Heat treatment. Dehydration and drying. Psychometry. Properties of air-water-vapor mixtures. Processing techniques for Nigerian food/fibre/forest crops and aquatic products.
ABE 532: Biomaterials Handling and Transportation Equipment (3 Units)
Methods of reducing handling damages. Transportation equipment. Powered farm vehicles for field use. Mono-wheelers, tri-wheelers, four-wheel carriers, multi-wheel carriers, crawler-type carriers. Motor trucks, subcompact trucks, farm trucks. Trailers, used with walking tractors; used with four-wheel tractors; used for transporting Combine Harvesters and heavy equipment. Trailers with hydraulic tippers. Grain trailers. Loaders and forklifts. Monorails.
ABE 533: Storage of Agricultural and Bioresources Products (2 Units)
Storage types and environment. Deterioration of produce in storage; importance of asepsis; extrinsic parameters of produce deterioration and their control. Special storage techniques. Unique aspects and problems of food/fibre and biomaterials storage in the humid tropics.
ABE 534: Biomass Engineering (3 Units)
Biomass resources and principles of utilization. Biomass liquid fuels: types, production principles and processes. Fermentation and distillation technologies. Biomass gas fuels: types, production principles and processes. Gasification technology. Gasification reactors. Biomass solid fuels: types, physical and chemical characteristics. Energy crops and their production. Biomass feed stocks. Environmental considerations.
ABE 535: Solar Energy Application in Bioprocess Engineering (2 Units)
Fundamentals of solar radiation. Solar heating and cooling. Heat transfer. Solar energy conversion efficiency. Principles of solar collections. Solar heat storage and applications in drying, preservation and storage systems for tropical food/fibre/forest crops, and for aquatic products. Design of solar dryers.
ABE 536: Packaging and Containerization Engineering (2 Units)
Purposes of packaging food and biomaterials. Packaging types: boxes, cartons, bags, bins, prepacks, paper wrapping and padding, plastic film bags, bio-degradables etc. Packaging systems. Marketing requirements for packaging. Storage environmental requirements. Types of packing configuration. Protection against shock, vibration and static compression of packaged biomaterials. Apportionment, convenience and labeling of cartons. Palletization. Canning technology. Aseptic processing and packaging. Modified atmosphere packaging and applications. Maximum allowable load concepts and containerization design.
ABE 537: Food Engineering (2 Units)
Definition. Heat and mass transfer. Insulation. Heat exchanger design and application. Heat and cold preservation of foods. Food packaging principles. Food quality control. Principles and design of food processing equipment.
ABE 539: Electrification and Alternative Energy Sources (3 Units)
Electrical codes, tariffs and regulations. Generation and transmission of electricity. Testing procedure. Power factor correction. Selection and use of electric motors. Transformers. Energy conversion. Applications and use of electricity in agricultural and bioresources engineering. Natural energy sources and their characteristics. Wind energy. Types of wind machines. Water pumping with wind power. Water power. Water turbines, water wheels, mechanical and electrical components. Solar energy. Solar cells. Biomass energy.
ABE 541: Design of Structures for Biomaterials Storage and Livestock Housing (3 Units)
Review of structural components. Principles and examples in elementary structural analysis and design. Building materials selection and use for specific building types. Design of sheep, pig, and poultry housing. Design of silos and timber shades. Design of grain storage structures.
ABE 542: Environmental Systems Management in Agricultural & Bioresources Engineering (2 Units)
Definition of ecosystems. Biological control of the environment. Concept of productivity. Production and decomposition in nature. Homeostasis of the ecosystem. Food chains, food webs and trophic levels. Ecosystem energetics. Biogeochemical cycles and recycle pathways. Nutrient cycling in the tropics. Primary goods and services provided by various ecosystems: Agro-ecosystem, Forest ecosystem, Freshwater ecosystem, Grassland ecosystem and Coastal ecosystem. Management trade-offs among various ecosystem goods and services. Taking stocks of ecosystem conditions and changing capacity. Ecosystem balancing.
ABE 543: Applied Biotechnology and Waste Management (3 Units)
Environmental applications of biochemistry and microbiology of interest to engineers. Microbial biomass, aerobic and anaerobic fermentation. Bioremediation principles. Physical, chemical and biological properties of liquid and solid wastes. Wastes handling and disposal methods. Design of waste treatment lagoons and holding facilities. Methods of land application and their pollution effects. Other methods of wastes utilization – production of compost, single cell protein, alcohol, fertilizer, biogas and chemicals. Nutrient cycles in water bodies. Oil spills, their impact and remedial measures. Design and maintenance of wetlands as waste treatment systems. Other applications of biomediation technology.
ABE 551: Precision Agriculture and Information Technology (2 Units)
Definition of precision agriculture. Electronic monitoring and control of field machines. Integrated control of tractors and their associated implements. Precision agriculture based on the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System. Sensors and automatic navigation of field machines. Machine vision concepts and cameras. Recognition of crop and soil features for applications to vehicle guidance and site-specific treatments.
ABE 572: Final – Year Project (6 Units)
Supervised individual student project undertaken in research, development, design and/or construction and testing, to deepen knowledge, strengthen practical experience and encourage creativity and independent work. The student submits a written report for grading in content, and also makes an oral presentation before a panel of examiners for assessment in technical presentation.
Faculty of Engineering and Service Courses
CE 211: Strength of Materials I (2 Units)
Force equilibrium – free body diagrams. Concept of stress, strain, Young’s Modulus, Hook’s Law and other strength factors and relations. Axially loaded bars, composite bars, temperature stresses and simple indeterminate problems; Hoop stresses. Elementary theory of torsion: torsion of circular shafts, transmission of power by shafts, axial-coiled, helical springs. Bending moment, shear force and axial force diagrams for statically determinate beams, and force determination in statically determinate trusses.
CE 212: Strength of Materials Laboratory I (1 Unit)
Tensile Tests on Bars. Determination of Young’s Modulus. Modulus of Rigidity of materials of close-coiled helical spring- stiffness. Determination of normal stresses in a beam under bending. Deformation of circular hollow shafts. Static deflection of springs.
CE 221: Fluid Mechanics I (2 Units)
Fluid fundamentals; Definition, units and dimensions. Elements of fluid statics, fluid density, pressure, surface tension, viscosity, compressibility, manometry, fluid thrust on immersed plane surfaces. Floatation and stability. Fluid dynamics, Conservation laws, continuity equations, Eulers’s equation, Bernoulli’s equation, and fluid power, momentum equation with applications, impact jet. Introduction to incompressible viscous flow. Reynolds number. Simple flow measurements with current meters. Hydraulic machinery – Type of machines, impulse and reaction turbines, axial pumps, specific speed of pumps, multistage pumps, characteristic performance curves of pumps.
CE 222: Fluid Mechanics Laboratory II (1 Units)
Newton’s Viscosity of a liquid: absolute and kinematic measurement, surface tension, stability of floating pontoon and determination of center of gravity. Impact jet experiments, velocity meter, Reynold’s dye experiment, and performance curve of pumps and turbines.
EE 211: Basic Electrical Engineering 1 (3 Units)
SI Systems of Units. E.S. and F.M. Fields, Electric Field Intensity, Potential and Potential Difference, Magnetic Field Intensity, Flux and Flux Density, Magnetic Circuits, Inductors. DC Circuit Analysis: Kirchoff’s Law, Mesh and Nodal Equations, Superposition Theorem, Thevenin’s Theorem, Norton’s Theorem, Maximum Power Transfer, Transients (RL and RC Circuits). AC Circuit Analysis: Alternating current, voltage, frequency, phase angle: maximum rans and average volume of waveforms. Inductive and capacitive reactance’s; power in AC circuits, use of complex Algebra in the solution of AC Circuits; Resonance. Transformers and AC/DC Machines: Principles of operation; circuit models for transformers and DC machines. Three phase AC System; Three phase balanced system; Delta/Star Connections; Lins and pase voltages and currents. Measurement: Electric current, Voltage, frequency and power measurement; measurement of resistance, capacitance and inductance. Bipolar and Field Effect Transistors- Biasing, DC characteristics; diode characteristics and diode rectifiers (single phase and three phase); Zaner diodes and its regulating characteristics.
EE 251: Basic Electrical Engineering Laboratory Practice 1 (1 Unit)
Resistance measurement, condition for maximum power transfer, inductance, and capacitance measurement, verification of network theorems, AC series circuit; measurement of power and power factors, excitation of DC generator, Load characteristics of a shunt DC motor, load characteristics of a separately excited DC motor, open and short circuit test of a single phase transformer, static characteristics of junction diode and transistor; Half and full wave rectification. Determination of copper temperature coefficient by wheatstone Bridge; Measurement of voltage, current and power in three phase Star/Delta connections; Simple domestic installation practices.
ECE 271: Engineering Computer Programming (3 Units)
Basic computer structure – CPU, memory, I/O. Types of computers. Application of computers in engineering, science, business, research, etc. Binary, octal, hexadecimal number systems. Basic logic components, AND, OR, NOT, AND gates. Operation on Binary numbers and logic gates. Flip-flops and registers as flags and storage elements in computers. Method of running Programmes on computers, interactive programming, batch processing, time sharing. Introduction to computer languages. Basic, Fortran, Cobol etc. Instruction types. At forms- integers, reels, strings, etc. Basic programme structure, Loops, branching subroutines, use of means. Data input/output structures in various languages. Programme design flow charts. Elements of computer graphics. Programming exercises in Basic and Fortran. Evaluation and use of software packages.
ECE 281: Engineering Computer Programming Laboratory (1 Units)
In this Laboratory, students will: carry out general programming exercises and specific simple project exercises in engineering; acquire basic training in word-processing, data-base applications and spreadsheets; learn how to use CAD packages.
ME 211: Engineering Drawing I (2 Units)
Use of drawing instruments, Descriptive Geometry and Geometrical Constructions. Lettering and dimensioning. First and third angles orthographic projection. Isometric projections. Sectioning, conventional practice, conic sections and development. Free hand and guided sketching, pictorial and orthographic. Machine drawing.
ME 212: Workshop Technology I (2 Units)
Practical: Use of measuring instruments; Caliper, micrometers, gauges, sine bar. Practice in wood planners, saws, spanners and pattern making. Machine shop; lathe work, shaping, milling, grinding, repair metal spinning, hand tools, gas and arc welding, cutting, brazing and soldering. Foundry practice. Theoretical: Industrial safety and accident prevention, ergonomics, and metrology. Casting, forging, press- tool work, spinning, metal Joining classification, simple theory of metal cutting. Tool action and cutting forces.
ME 261: Thermodynamics & Heat Engines: (2 Units)
Basic concepts, deformations and laws. The ideal gases, heat and work. The first law of Thermodynamics, applications to open and closed systems. The steady state flow equation (Bernoulli’s Equation) and applications. Second Law of Thermodynamics and Heat Cycles.
CE 321: Fluid Mechanics I (2 Units)
Fluid properties. Fluid statistics. Fluid continuity, Bernoulli, energy, momentum equations. Reynolds number. Laminar and turbulent flows, pipe flow. Open channel flow. Weirs, Flumes, pump turbines, cutlets, gates, and valves. 30h (T)
CE 341: Engineering Geology (2 Units)
The earth geological processes. Engineering properties of rocks. Stratigraphy. Geotectonic. Geomorphology. Mineralogy and Petrology Geology of Nigeria. 30h (T).
CE 351: Engineering Surveys I (3 Units)
Definitions. Measurement of distances. Use of minor instruments, random errors. Chain surveying. Bearing of Lines. Leveling. Topographic surveys. Traversing. Land shaping and earthwork. 30h(T) 45h (P).
ME 341 : Mechanics of Machines (2 Units)
Force and motion relationships in constrained mechanisms. Analysis of cam, gear linkage, bolt drive, chains drive systems for motion and power transmission. Vehicular mechanics brake and clutch systems. Kinetics of rotating and reciprocating masses. Elements of vibrator systems. 30h(T).
ME 391: Metallurgy (2 Unit)
Metals and alloys, their production and use. Nature, origin and control of structure in metalling system and their relation to mechanical properties. Diffusion, deformation, hardening, transformation. Heat treatment. Metallographic laboratory practices. 30 (T).
AGEC 201: Basic Principles of Agricultural Economics (4 Units)
Basic concepts. Factors of production. Supply and demand. Price. Elasticity analysis. Household behaviours theories. Business organization. Production, the market Income. Employment – Classical, non- classical and Keynessian approaches. Money, expenditure. Taxation. Budget. International Trade. 30h (T).
ANSC 274: Principles of Animal Production (2 Units)
Types of livestock (for eggs, milk, meat, wool, etc.). Distribution of livestock in Nigeria. Animal feeding and nutrition. Forage crops and their preservation. Artificial insemination. Livestock housing. Livestock processing equipment. 30h (T).
AGEC 301: Basic Farm Management and Production Economics (3 Units)
Application of basic sociological concepts to rural life. Management decision making. Functions of management planning, organization staffing, directing and controlling. Financial management. Principles of extension: diffusion, adoption and rejection of innovations. Communication and leadership in agricultural extension. 30h(T).
CSC 332: Introduction to Crop Science (2 Units)
Classification and ecology of crops in Nigeria. Nutrient requirements and mineral nutrition of plants. Manure and fertilizers. Plant growth and development. Growth stages. Tillage and weed control. Other cultural practices. Cropping sequences and relation Farming systems. Production practices for specified crops. 30h (T).
SSC 211: Introduction to Soil Science (2 Units)
Origin and formation of Soils. Physical properties of soils. Soil colloids, soil reactions, soil mineralogy. Soil organic matter. Soil survey and classification. Water movement in soils.
ABE 601: Agricultural Engineering Seminar
Agricultural Engineering Seminar reports on research/special topic/development in Agricultural Engineering, written and presented as a seminar to staff and students of the Department, Training in technical writing and presentation. (2 Units)
ABE 602: Special Problems in Agricultural Engineering
Analysis of a specified engineering problem (specific to a student) relating to the area of specialization of the student. (2 Units,)
ABE 603: Agricultural Mechanization Strategies and Systems
Development of strategies for integrated agricultural mechanization concepts and principles. Selection and utilization of agricultural equipment for various types of farms. Methods of optimization of tractor-implement combination. Selection and classification of irrigable land. The economics of erosion control. Strategies for food processing and industrial raw materials handling systems. Economics of farm transportation. (2 Units)
ABE 604: Metrology in Engineering Properties of Bio-materials
Techniques for the measurement, evaluation and analysis of the physical characteristics, mechanical, rheological, thermal, electrical and optical properties of bio-materials in relation to handling, storage, processing and quality control of agricultural and food materials, Force-deformation tests and analysis, Hertz theory and Boussine theory; bulk compression test, parallel shear tests, stress relaxation tests, creep apparatus; triaxial tests, rheological models, viscometry, (Stormer viscometer, MacMichael Viscometer, etc,); angle internal friction/angle of repose measurements; strength and flow ability of unconsolidated materials; measurements of suspension/terminal velocity; techniques for measuring volume, density, porosity,specific surface, and permeability of granular materials. Thermal conductivity apparatus for agricultural/food materials. Measures of mechanical parameters of food texture. Measurement and analysis of particle size distribution. (2 Units)
ABE 605: Application of Finite Elements Methods in Agricultural Engineering
Matrix algebra and its application in the implementation of the finite element method (FEM). Development of a finite element model governing equations, problems idealization, constitutive relationships, boundary conditions, geometric and material non-linearities, computer implementation. Specific agricultural engineering problems will be solved using existing FEM. These include problems in tillage, soil compaction, design of frames of agricultural machines, stress analysis of soils and other storage structures, stress distribution i’ bio-material under load. (2 Units)
ABE 606: Applied Expert Systems
Introduction to expist systems and artificial intelligence. Heuristic search, production systems, structural objects and predicate logic. Toots for building expert systems Induction, knowledge acquisition and representation. Plausible reasoning. Explaining expert system behaviour. Specific expert system case studies. Applications evaluation. VP-Expert as a case study of an expert system shell. Practical exercise in the construction of an expert system using VP-Expert. (3 Units)
ABE 611: Tractors and Other Farm Power Systems
Practical tests on the various types of tractors and internal combustion engines. Gasoline and diesel tractors. Tractor hydraulics and hydraulic equipment Tractor stability. Power measurement methods. Power efficiency in farm tractors. Tractor breakdown, maintenance and management. Electric power. Other farm power sources. (3 Units)
ABE 612: Soil Tillage Mechanics and Machinery
Conventional, minimum and optimum tiliage concepts. Research and development in tillage mechanics and machinery. Advanced mechanics of soil interactions. Force analysis and design considerations of mouldboard, disc and rotary tillers. Field testing and evaluation of tillage machinery. (3 Units)
ABE 613: Planting and Fertilizer Application Machinery
Research and development in planting and fertilizing equipment. Theory and design of feed, mechanisms for different types of solid and liquid fertilizers, manure spreaders, seeds and tubers, Testing of planting and fertilizing equipment. (3 Units)
ABE 614: Crop Protection Machinery
Research and development in crop protection methods and equipment. Theory and design of selected types of nozzles, pressure valves and agitators. Field and laboratory testing of spraying and dusting equipment. Design, development and testing of cultivation equipment (mechanical weeders and cultivators). (3 Units)
ABE 615: Harvesting Machinery
Research and development in harvesting machinery. Methods of mechanical harvesting. Force analysis and design consideration of grain combines, com pickers, cotton pickers, forage harvcsters. Balers and binders, root harvesters. Testing of harvesting machinery. (3 Units)
ABE 616: Land Clearing and Earth-moving Equipment
Methods of clearing the various types of lands. Evaluation of the different types of earth-moving equipments theory, design, capacities, efficiencies and power requirements. Cost analysis and selection of land clearing and earth-moving equipment. Earth-moving mechanics. (3 Units)
ABE 621: Irrigation Systems Development and Evaluation
Total and supplemental irrigation in Nigeria. Seiectie.n and classification of irrigable lands. Irrigation water requirements of principal crops. Irrigation system evaluation and improvement 0 sprinkler, furrow, border strip. Advance recession and soil intake functions. Hydraulics sprinkler systems. Economic, social and environmental implications of irrigation system development. (3 Units)
ABE 622: Agricultural Laud Drainage Engineering
Introduction to groundwater hydraulics and water in the soil moisture. Dynamics of water in the soil, saturated Rows, continuity equation, boundary conditions, and solution techniques. Steady and non- steady state drainage problems. Stratification and anoisotropy. Permeability and hydraulic conductivity. Rainfall-runoff relations for surface drainage. Salinity problems in soil water. Drainage criteria in relation to soils and crops. Design and maintenance of field systems for subsurface and surface drainage, for salinity control, and erosion control. Design and maintenance of drainage systems. Drainage materials. Procedures in drainage projects. Application of computer models in land drainage, reclamation and improvement. (3 Units)
ABE 623: Sediment Transport Hydraulic and Earthen Channel Design
Introduction to fluvial hydraulics. Origin and properties of sediments, Threshold of particle transport. Sediment movement, bed load, suspended load and total load transport. Roughness of channel, vegetated and cultivated land surfaces Velocity distnbution in alluvial channe’s Stable channel design, empirical and tractive force methods. Comparison of regime and tractive force methods. Ripples, dunes and anti-dunes. Watercourse geometry. Scour below hydraulic structures. (3 Units)
ABE 624: Ground Water Hydrology and Development
Ground water occurrence and movement. Well hydraulics. Well development drilling techniques, screens. Well tests. Ground water levels and fluctuations. Ground water quality. Surface and sub surface investigations. Artificial recharge. Basin-wide ground water development. (3 Units)
ABE 625: Applied Hydrology
Introduction to agro-meteorology. Temperature, pressure, wind, sunshine, radiation and humidity. Clouds, condensation and precipitation. Rain interception. Evaporation and transpiration. Infiltration and subsurface flow processes, saturated and unsaturated. Surface runoff, runoff hydrography, and flow fouling. Statistical and frequency analysis of hydrologic data. Hydrologic design. Reservoir design, sedimentation and useful life. Hydrologic models and modelling of agricultural watersheds. (3 Units)
ABE 626: Irrigation Water Quality and Management
Quality of surface waters; ground water quality of impounded waters. Soil and water classifica ion and crop tolerance. Management of saline and alkali soils in irrigated areas, and water quality requirements for their reclamation. (3 Units)
ABE 627: Water Resources Development for Agricultural Purposes
Principles of irrigation water measurement. Water impounding reservoirs design criteria, spill way capacity, siting and management. Water diversion, conveyance and distribution systems. Energy dissipators. Trend in water resources development in Nigeria. (3 Units)
ABE 628: Soil Erosion Prediction and Control Technology
Rainfall excess calculations. Runoff coefficients for overland flow, rills, and interrill areas. Overland flow routing. Soil properties affecting erosion. Random roughness, ridge height, bulk density and soil water content. Soil detachment by raindrops and concentrated flow. Governing equations for sediment continuity, detachment, deposition, shear stress in rills, and transport capacity. Generalized models of interrill and nil erosion. Interrill erodibility, nil erodibility and critical shear of cropland soils. Temporal modification of erodibility parameters as influenced by above and below ground residue, plant canopy, tillage and soil consolidation. Downslope spatial variability. WEPP model application in soil conservation planning and design of conservation systems. (3 Units)
ABE 631: Agricultural Processing Unit Operations
Unit operations as links in the chain of all agricultural engineering processing systems. Scientific foundations of major unit operations in agricultural engineering processing systems. Fluid statics and its applications; fluid flow phenomena; compressible and incompressible fluids in conduits; Non- Newtonian fluid characteristics, Hydro-transport and metering of fluids. Agitation, mixing and blending in food processing. Heat and mass transfer applications; Evaporation, concentration extraction and crystallization. Separation operations. Comminution operations. Handling of particulate solids. Extraction and palletization. (3 Units)
ABE 632: Crop Drying Systems
Introduction: Theoretical foundations; conservation concept, thermodynamics of irreversible processes, driving potentials. Analysis of crop drying systems; deep bed, fixed, through flow and fluidized bed systems. Determination of drying constants for local food crops. Comparative study of air distribution systems and structures. Energy sources for crop drying. Solar energy utilization. Simulation of drying systems. (3 Units)
ABE 633: Industrial Food Processing and Storage
Engineering principles of food crop preservation and storage. Thermal processes in food engineering. Food quality evaluation. Consumer acceptance and food prices. Design and development of machines for primary/secondary processing of local crops. Feasibility studies for agro Enterprises development in agribusiness. (3 Units)
ABE 634: Agricultural Materials Handling Systems
Design applications of engineering principles involved in handling bio-materials. Factors influencing selection of materials handling equipment. Farm transport. Treatment of specific handling q as links in a total process. Materials handling as a processing activity; economics and cost analysis. Design and development of handling equipment relevant to Nigerian agricultural industry. (3 Units)
ABE 635: Analysis and selection of Cleaning and Sorting Equipment
Developments in cleaning and sorting systems Effects of grain crop characteristics on selection of cleaning equipment. Theory, design, capacity and effici of plain sieves, cylindrical sieves, Magnetic methods and aerodynamic methods used in cleaning and sorting equipment.
ABE 636: Theory and Techniques of Farm Products Storage
Mechanisms of deterioration; methods of quantification and analysis. Biochemical and enzymental changes and effects. Storage techniques; Underground pit storage, evaporative cooled storage irradiation techniques. Ambient storage of primary products: Thermodynamics and energy exchanges, time temperature effects and shelf life, optimum storage conditions and management control strategies. Example applications and local crops. Cold storage: Freezing rate effects of frozen product quality, ice crystal formation and ice crystal damage, freezing injury and entopic energy and effects on physiological stability. Cold storage transport. Storage of processed foods: environmental factors and container permeability. Warehousing and materials handling in storage. (3 Units)
ABE 637: Design of Storage Structures
Study and evaluation of traditional storage structures, design and construction (barns, cribs, clamps, underground structures). Structural design of modem storage structures (bins, tanks, silos, etc.). Lateral loads L theories of failure in non-fluid masses: granular materials (yams, cassava, palm-fruits, waters, etc): fibrous materials: Image, hay, etc. Design of container walls for combined loading. Hopper bottom bins; flow properties of bulk materials; theories of flow, criteria of flow, predicting stress distribution in hopper bottom bins. (3 Units)
ABE 641: Farm Estate Planning and Design
The farm estate and farmstead concepts, farm estate enterprises. The planning of the farm estate; general layout and location of farmstead, infrastructures, services and conveniences (health clinics, schools, markets, postal agency, central workshop and fuel depot, etc). Design of infrastructural facilities, farm estate roads and road network development, farm electrification, water supply, etc. Farmstead planning: layout and location of buildings and facilities (farm house, livestock buildings, storage facilities, workshop, etc). Location of service entrance and source of water supply Design of electricity and water supply distribution (network.). Design of farmstead roads and road network. Location and design of facilities and equipment for farm waste disposal. (3 Units)
ABE 642: Environmental Control in Farm, Buildings and Structures
The environment; Interaction of the natural, biological and human systems; physiological factors, thermal interchanges, environmental indices, health and comfort. Environmental control for animals, plants and farm produce; types of control; physical, mechanical and chemical; control measures and devices to achieve suitable quality of the environment; functional requirements for housing animals and crops; analysis of factors affecting energy and mass exchanges with the environment; systems approach to environmental control. Psychometrics: application to design problems on comfort, air- conditioning and to problems involving heat and mass transfer. Design procedure for energy bala we systems, heat loss studies insulation materials and design, water vapour barrier materials and design. (3 units)
ABE 643: Structural Analysis and Design of Farm Buildings
Light weight frames low profile buildings. Deformation and stress analysis for steel, wood and concrete structures. Deflection under stress. Solution of indeterminate frames. Predicting stress distribution. Analysis of specific structural frames: Two hinged arches, three-hinged arches, rigid frames, combined systems Pole buildings. Depth of embedment for lateral stability and uplift resistance, rigid pillar design load distribution in a multiple bent, Load bearing panels for low profile buildings. Diaphragms and stressed skin panels; design for lateral loading, design for combined loading, fabrication techniques. Sandwich panels: theory of the structural sandwich, predicting stress and deformation, materials and methods of fabrication. (3 Units)
ABE 644: Solar Energy Utilization in Agriculture
Solar radiation measurement. Computer estimation of available solar radiation. Review of Heat transfer. Flat plate collector design and performance testing. Design of other collectors. Analysis of sensible and latent heat for thermal energy storage. Solar heating systems: Solar crop dryers, green houses, solar stills, solar livestock housing. Solar cooling systems; solar refrigerators. Solar enhanced evaporative coolers. Solar heating and cooling system design procedures including computer simulation. Economics of solar thermal systems. (3 Units)
ABE 645: Agricultural Waste Treatment and System Designs
Sources of Agricultural Wastes. Characteristics of Agricultural waste as related to handling and treatment processes. Environmental impact of Agricultural waste. Agricultural waste collection. Physical, chemical and biological treatment of Agricultural waste: Screening, sedimentation, floatation, disinfection, chemical precipitation, aerobic ponds, ditches and lagoons activated sludge processes, RI3C, trickling filter, aerobic and anaerobic digestion. Solid waste treatment. Composting. Land treatment. Non point source pollution control. Design of waste treatment facilities and systems including computer application. Legal aspects of agricultural waste management. (3 Units)
ABE 646: Agricultural Waste Utilization
Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of livestock and poultry manure, crop residues and wood Processing wastes. Processing and utilization of animal wastes for animal feeds, organic fertilizer, fish production, single cell protein, algae and insect production. Processing and utilization of crop residues and food processing wastes. Energy generation from Agricultural wastes: Thermochemical processing: combustion, gasification and pyrolysis. Biological processes: aerobic and anaerobic digestion. Characteristics and utilization biogas and digestion by-products. Land application of agricultural wastes. Industrial uses of crop residues. (3 Units)
ABE 690: Project Report
A project report shall embody an original investigation or design, undertaken in the immediate supervision of one or more members of the academic staff of the Department. The report shall not have been, in part or in full submitted for any other diploma or degree of this University or of another educational institution. (8 Units)
ABE 701: Agricultural Engineering Seminar
Seminar reports by Ph.D. students written and presented by the candidates as a seminar to staff and students of Agric. Engineering Department. The topic of the Seminar will be chosen by each student in any area of agricultural engineering other than the student’s Ph.D. research topic. (2 Units)
ABE 702: Special Problems in Agricultural Engineering
Analysis of a specified engineer problem in the general area of interest related to the area of research work conducted by a Ph.D. candidate but different from the specific research topic. The purpose of this course is to afford the student an opportunity to examine and report on problems related to the student s area of specific interest. (2 Units)
ABE 703: Instrumentation and Measurement in Agric. Engineering Research
Methods and Instrumentation for field and laboratory measurements on agricultural machines, Data transformation and evaluation of measurement results, Dimensional analysis. Computational techniques. Instrumentation for measurement of passive electrical properties of biomaterials. Electrodes interface and polarization. Physical models of biological systems and equivalent electrical circuits. Instrumentation for, quality evaluation of foods, microcomputer based data acquisition and control systems. (2 Units)
ABE 790: Thesis (Ph.D.)
A thesis shall embody original scholarship and independent research which must make a distinct contribution to knowledge in an area of agricultural engineering. The thesis must be submitted in an approved format and defended in an oral examination.